Color Superconductivity in Dense Quark Matter
The behavior of quarks under extreme conditions has been a subject of intense research in recent decades. At high densities, quarks can form a novel state of matter known as quark matter, which has unique properties that have garnered attention from both particle physicists and astrophysicists. In this essay, we explore the phenomenon of color superconductivity, which is a manifestation of the behavior of quarks in dense quark matter. We discuss the various phases of quark matter, including the superconducting quark matter phase, the CFL phase, and the 2SC phase, as well as the dependence of the QCD phase diagram on the strange quark mass. Furthermore, we investigate how color superconductivity manifests in compact stars, discussing the challenges of maintaining beta equilibrium and charge neutrality and how these conditions can disfavor traditional color superconductors. However, we also explore how other types of superconductors can be formed due to a fermi momentum mismatch.